What Are The Primary Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections?

What Are The Primary Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections?
May 9, 2024 by admin

A urinary tract infection or UTI is a common infection that occurs in any part of your urinary system, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Most UTIs involve the lower part of the urinary tract, the bladder, and the urethra.

More women than men are prone to UTIs. You experience severe pain if a UTI is limited just to the bladder. However, serious health problems may arise when the UTI spreads and affects the kidneys.

Typically, antibiotics are used for treating UTIs. However, it is possible to prevent the occurrence of UTIs. To know more about prevention, it is recommended that you visit the best urology hospital in Chennai.

Main Causes Of UTI

The entry of bacteria into the urinary tract via the urethra primarily causes UTI. The bacteria then start multiplying in the bladder. The human urinary system is basically designed to keep bacteria out. However, the individual’s immune system fails at times and this results in the development of urinary tract infection. Women are more susceptible to this infection, and it affects both the bladder and urethra.

Bladder infection is generally caused by the bacteria called Escherichia coli or E.Coli. It is commonly present in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. However, UTIs occur because of other bacteria as well. Having physical intercourse can also cause a bladder infection. The anatomy of women increases the risk of them developing bladder infections. This is because the urethra is very close to the anus in women. Furthermore, the opening of the urethra is very close to the bladder, making it easier for the bacteria present around their anus to reach the bladder via the urethra.

Urethra infection happens when the bacteria in the GI tract spread to the urethra from the anus. Sexually transmitted diseases can also cause a urethral infection. They include herpes, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhoea.

Symptoms Of UTIs

UTIs may not always cause symptoms. However, symptoms may include:

  • A persistent urge to urinate
  • A burning sensation when urinating
  • Urinating frequently or passing urine in small amounts
  • Urine that appears cloudy
  • Presence of blood in the urine
  • Strong-smelling urine
  • Pelvic pain in women

Different Types of UTIs

Symptoms may be different for each type of UTI, and they are dependent on which part of a person’s urinary tract is affected.

If the kidneys are affected:

  • Back/side pain
  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

If the bladder is affected:

  • Pelvic pressure
  • Discomfort in the lower belly
  • Frequent, painful urination
  • Presence of blood in the urine


  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Discharge

If you are a resident of Chennai and suffering from any of the abovementioned symptoms, you must consult with the top urologist in Chennai.

UTI Risk Factors

UTIs are more common among women, and many women get affected by this infection more than once in their lifetimes.

The risk factors that are specific to women include:

Female Anatomy: 

The urethra of women is shorter compared to men. As a result, the distance to be travelled by bacteria to reach the urinary bladder in women is shorter and effects easily.

Sexual Activity: 

Women who are sexually active are likely to experience more UTIs. Having new sexual partners further increases the risk.

Birth Control Contraptions: 

Using certain birth control contraptions like diaphragms can increase the risk of contracting UTIs. The use of spermicidal agents might also increase the risk.


The oestrogen level in the body decreases after menopause. This often causes changes in a menopausal woman’s urinary tract and increases the infection risk.

Other Risk Factors Include:

Urinary Tract Problems:

Children born with urinary tract problems may have trouble passing urine. The collection of urine in the urethra causes infections.

Urinary Tract Blockages: 

An enlarged prostate gland and kidney stones can cause the collection of urine in the bladder and increase the risk of infection.

A Compromised Immune System: 

Degenerative diseases like diabetes can impair a person’s immune system. This reduces the body’s defence against germs and increases the risk of all infections, including UTIs.

Catheter Usage: 

Sick people are sometimes put on catheters for urination because of their constrained movement. This often increases the risk of infection.


To diagnose UTIs, doctors may recommend the following tests and procedures:

  • Urine sample analysis
  • Urine culture test to identify the bacteria causing the infection
  • A scan of your urinary tract (ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), depending on the severity and recurrence of the infection.
  • Cystoscopy

Treatment For UTI

The first line of treatment for UTIs is antibiotics. The medicine to be used for treatment is decided by your doctor based on your health condition, the type of bacteria that is present in your urine, and the severity of your infection. The doctor will also suggest how long you should take medicine. The symptoms of UTIs reduce within a couple of days from the first day of treatment. However, you may be advised to take antibiotics for a few more days. It is important to take medications as prescribed by your doctor.

If you happen to get UTIs frequently, then your doctor may:

  • Put you on a low dose of antibiotics for at least six months
  • Recommend diagnosing and treating when symptoms occur
  • Advise taking one single dose of antibiotic if sexual activity is the cause of infection
  • Suggest vaginal oestrogen therapy if you have reached menopause

In conclusion, a physician may be able to recommend treatment for most UTIs. However, if you frequently get UTIs or have a chronic infection in the kidneys, the physician you consult may refer you to a urologist or nephrologist.

Sugam Hospital

The multi-speciality hospital in Chennai, Sugam Hospital, boasts of having top-rated specialists in various specialities including medicine, urology, and nephrology. The specialists at Sugam are highly knowledgeable and experienced in their fields of practice. Besides, the hospital has one of the most modern diagnostic labs in Chennai to support them in determining the root cause of various conditions and providing patients with appropriate treatments.’